State-building and the development of the modern nation-state was an inherently centralizing process. Education policy and institutionalization of mass public schooling played a key role in this process, facilitating industrialization and the generation of mass loyalty toward the state through national symbols, myths or a standardized language.
Since the 1990s, sub-federal units have become increasingly active in trade politics, a domain that is usually an exclusive jurisdiction of the federal level. Conceptualizing this process of institutional change as federalization, this paper adopts a most similar case design to examine how four factors interact to generate different patterns of trade policy engagement in Switzerland, Austria and Germany.
Transforming the energy system towards an increasing share of renewables requires a significant change of a policy to redirect the path-dependent evolution of a highly complex technical system.
In this op-ed, I argue that Canadian federalism provides a flexible institutional foundation for effectively responding to the COVID-19 pandemic. But a leadership problem outside the Atlantic provinces has prevented this from happening.
This essay was published as part of the inaugural essay series for the Centre of Excellence on the Canadian Federation.
It argues that historically, three conditions have facilitated transformative change in Canada: reconstructive leadership, collaborative federalism and a commission of inquiry.
The Multilevel Politics of Trade presents a timely comparative analysis of eight federations (plus the European Union) to explore why some sub-federal actors have become more active in trade politics in recent years.